Near each of the pyramids, a mortuary shrine was constructed. The mortuary was linked to a temple at the Nile Floodplain edge via a causeway. Not far from the pyramids, other subsidiary pyramids were constructed for burial of other royal family members. Among all the three pyramids, Khufu’s has been described as the most colossal one with sides rising at 51052’ angle.
The core of the pyramid is constructed of limestone blocks that are yellowish in color while the outer case and inner passages are constructed of fine light colored limestone. The interior of the burial chamber is constructed of granite blocks totaling to 2.3 million stones. The stones used to construct the pyramid were cut, assembled and transported to construct the structure which is a true reflection of technical skills and highest level of engineering capability.
Khufu’s pyramid showcases the finest masonry quality known in Egypt as is witnessed by the outer casing and internal wall stones that are still in place. The entrance to this pyramid is located on the northern side and it is 18 metres above the ground level. There is also a sloppy corridor which descends from the interior of the pyramids masonry.
The interior masonry extends to rocky soil where the pyramid rests and stops at an underground unfinished chamber. The corridor also branches to a passageway leading to the room known as Queen’s Chamber and a slanting gallery. The upper side of the gallery has a narrow and long passageway that makes it possible to access the ‘burial proper room’ which is the king’s chamber. The room is roofed and lined of pure granite and from this chamber runs 2 narrow shafts which run obliquely.
It is not yet known whether the shafts were for purposes of ventilation or whether they had any religious purpose. Five compartments are located just above the chamber that belonged to the king and they are separated by granite slabs. It is assumed the slabs were for purposes of shielding the burial chamber ceiling thus diverting the thrust of masonry workers at work.
How the Pyramids of Giza were constructed
To date, people from different quarters still debate on just how the pyramids were constructed. For instance, there are those who believe that Khufu’s pyramid was constructed by slaves. However, others argue that allegation is not true and offer other theories. Most of these theories sound farfetched though there are others which are plausible.
The most conceivable theory though states the Egyptians designed an encircling and eloping embankment of sand, brick and earth. This embankment was then increased in length and height leading to formation of a pyramid which rose as more stones were laid in place. The Egyptians used rollers, levers and sledges to haul stone blocks up the pyramids ramp.
Herodotus, the prehistoric historian estimated that the construction lasted 20 years and 100,000 men worked on it. This figure could be right on point since there is the assumption that the pyramid was constructed by agricultural laborers who worked on the construction of the pyramid when work in the Nile fields was little.
In the 20th century though, archeologists came across evidence that suggested the workforce was far less and that the workers worked around the clock on the pyramids rather than seasonally. These archeologists further listed the number of workers as 20,000 with an accompaniment of personnel support such as physicians, bakers and priests among others.